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古玩城2020精品推荐第二期:清康熙双足底青花大盘 

2020-06-06 21:33:00  来源: 未知

青花瓷又称白地青花瓷,常简称青花,中华陶瓷烧制工艺的珍品。是中国瓷器的主流品种之一,属釉下彩瓷。它是用含氧化钴的钴矿为原料,在陶瓷坯体上描绘纹饰,再罩上一层透明釉,经高温还原焰一次烧成。钴料烧成后呈蓝色,具有着色力强、发色鲜艳、烧成率高、呈色稳定的特点。目前发现最早的青花瓷标本是唐代的;成熟的青花瓷器出现在元代;明代青花成为瓷器的主流;清康熙时发展到了顶峰。明清时期,还创烧了青花五彩、孔雀绿釉青花、豆青釉青花、青花红彩、黄地青花、哥釉青花等品种。

Blue and white porcelain, also known as white ground blue and white porcelain, is often referred to as blue and white porcelain. It is a treasure of Chinese ceramic firing technology. It is one of the main varieties of Chinese porcelain and belongs to underglaze color porcelain. Cobalt ore containing cobalt oxide is used as a raw material, decorative patterns are depicted on a ceramic blank body, a layer of transparent glaze is covered, and the ceramic blank body is once fired by a high-temperature reducing flame. Cobalt is blue after firing, and has the characteristics of strong coloring power, bright color, high firing rate and stable color. At present, the earliest blue and white porcelain specimens found are from Tang Dynasty. Mature blue and white porcelain appeared in Yuan Dynasty. Blue and white porcelain became the mainstream of porcelain in Ming Dynasty. Kangxi reached its peak in the Qing Dynasty. During the Ming and Qing dynasties, blue and white, peacock green, pea green, blue and white, blue and white red, yellow blue and white, blue and white, blue and white and other varieties of Ge glaze were also created and burned.

青花瓷具有非常高的欣赏和收藏价值,历来受到全世界人民的喜爱,青花瓷的历史价值非常高,起源于唐代。宋代青花瓷虽有生产,但仍属于初级阶段,发展缓慢,传世器物很少。元代青花瓷趋向成熟,尤以江西景德镇青花瓷最为精致,有一定数量的青花瓷器传世.

Blue and white porcelain has a very high appreciation and collection value and has always been loved by people all over the world. Blue and white porcelain has a very high historical value and originated in the Tang Dynasty. Although blue-and-white porcelain was produced in Song Dynasty, it was still in the primary stage and developed slowly, with few artifacts handed down from ancient times. Blue and white porcelain in Yuan Dynasty tends to mature, especially Jingdezhen blue and white porcelain in Jiangxi Province is the most exquisite, with a certain number of blue and white porcelain handed down from ancient times.

 

 

元代的青花瓷器发展已比较成熟,青花料在当时分为进口和国产两种,早期使用的色料来自海外,称为“苏麻离青”或“苏渤泥青”,简称“苏青”。元代青花瓷的胎体一般较为厚重,色彩鲜艳、构图繁密,采用多层装饰,花纹以龙凤、鱼藻、鸳鸯、荷鹭、缠枝花、山水、人物故事居多。内容丰富,笔法自由,生动传神;画面层次丰富,构图饱满,装饰性极强。许多器物画有八宝、莲花、海马和大云头等纹饰,明显受到喇嘛教艺术的影响。元青花造型优美,古朴端庄。既有恢弘雄伟的大器,如大罐、大盘、大碗等;也有精细灵巧的小器,如胎体轻薄的高足碗、高足杯、匜、盘等。元青花线条苍劲有力,平涂结合勾、皴、点、染,表现了与水墨画相同的艺术效果,显示出元代工匠高超的绘画才能。

The blue and white porcelain ware of Yuan Dynasty was relatively mature. Blue and white materials were divided into imported and domestic ones at that time. The pigments used in the early period came from overseas and were called "Su Ma Li Qing" or "Su Bo Ni Qing" or "Su Qing" for short. The body of Yuan Dynasty blue and white porcelain is generally thick, with bright colors and dense composition. It is decorated with multiple layers. The patterns are mostly dragon and phoenix, fish and algae, mandarin duck, lotus heron, twining flower, landscape and character stories. Rich in content, free in brushwork, vivid and vivid; The picture is rich in layers, full in composition and highly decorative. Many implements are decorated with eight treasures, lotus flower, sea horse and big cloud head, which are obviously influenced by Lamaism. Blue and white porcelain of Yuan Dynasty is graceful in shape and simple and elegant. There are magnificent vessels, such as large pots, large plates, large bowls, etc. There are also delicate and smart gadgets, such as Gao Zuwan, Gao Zubei, Zhi, Pan, etc. with thin and light carcass. The blue-and-white lines of Yuan Dynasty are vigorous and vigorous. The combination of horizontal painting with hook, chapped, dotted and dyed shows the same artistic effect as ink painting, showing the superb painting skills of Yuan Dynasty craftsmen.

 

明代是青花瓷发展的高峰时期,无论是景德镇官窑,还是各地民窑,都创作了许多精美的传世佳作。这一时期的青花瓷,一直被视为是中国青花瓷的一种典范,为后世所追仿。特别是永乐、宣德和成化、嘉靖及万历年间官窑烧制的青花瓷,以其胎釉精细、青色浓艳、造型多样、装饰丰富而著称于世。成化年间,青花瓷使用了一种新的青料,叫“平等青”,也叫“坡塘青”,这种青料产于江西瑞州。“平等青”发色稳定,色泽淡雅、柔和,给人一种若隐若现、虚无缥缈的感觉。成化青花瓷,色泽淡雅,釉面肥润、抚之有玉质感;胎质细腻纯洁,白釉莹润婴戏等。从嘉靖到万历,用于烧制青花瓷的色料是一种叫做“回青”的色料。所谓“回青”,也称“回青”,与“苏青”一样来自阿拉伯地区。而万历年间的青花料则产自浙江,也由此名为“浙料”。

Ming Dynasty was the peak period for the development of blue and white porcelain. Both Jingdezhen official kilns and local folk kilns created many exquisite masterpieces handed down from ancient times. Blue and white porcelain of this period has always been regarded as a model of Chinese blue and white porcelain and has been imitated by later generations. In particular, blue and white porcelain fired in official kilns during Yongle, Xuande and Chenghua, Jiajing and Wanli years is famous for its fine glaze, rich cyan color, various shapes and rich decorations. During the Chenghua period, blue and white porcelain used a new green material called "Ping Dengqing" or "Potang Green", which was produced in Ruizhou, Jiangxi Province. "Ping Dengqing" has stable hair color, elegant and soft color, giving people a subtle and illusory feeling. Chenghua blue-and-white porcelain is elegant in color and luster, and its glaze is plump and smooth with jade texture. The quality of the fetus is exquisite and pure, and the white glaze is jade-like and moistens the baby's play. From Jiajing to Wanli, the pigment used to make blue and white porcelain was a pigment called "Huiqing". The so-called "Huiqing", also known as "Huiqing", comes from the Arab region like "Su Qing". The blue-and-white materials from Wanli period were produced in Zhejiang, hence the name "Zhejiang Materials".

清代,康熙、雍正、乾隆三代皇帝对瓷器的生产工艺、胎釉质地、画面装饰都十分关注,甚至到了事必躬亲的地步,使清代青花瓷的制作技艺水平达到一个新的高度。民窑青花在纹饰方面,显得更加生动活泼,形式多样,充满生活气息。出现了许多历史题材和戏曲故事画,如岁寒三友、米芾拜石、《西厢记》《三国演义》等。在瓷坯上绘画,一种颜色能表现出浓淡深浅多种层次,与中国画“墨分五色”一样,有“料分五色”之说。官窑青花,器物大小要求适度,画面效果重视神韵,造型变化讲究韵律。民窑青花则不拘一格,运笔熟练刚健,画风自然随意,具有很强的民间风格。

In the Qing Dynasty, the three emperors Kangxi, Yongzheng and Ganlong paid close attention to the porcelain production technology, enamel floor and picture decoration. They even went so far as to be hands-on, bringing the level of blue and white porcelain production technology in the Qing Dynasty to a new level. Blue and white porcelain in folk kilns is more vivid and lively in decoration, with various forms and full of life flavor. There are many historical themes and drama story paintings, such as Three Friends of the Year Han, Mi Fei Baishi, Romance of the Western Chamber, Romance of the Three Kingdoms, etc. When painting on porcelain, one color can show many levels of shade and shade, just like "ink is divided into five colors" in Chinese painting, there is a saying of "material is divided into five colors". Blue and white ware in official kilns requires a moderate size, the picture effect attaches great importance to verve, and the shape changes pay attention to rhythm. On the other hand, the blue and white porcelain of the folk kiln is not restricted to one pattern, and its calligraphy is skilled and vigorous, and its style of painting is natural and casual. It has a strong folk style.

 

此件“康熙年制双足底青花大盘”, 大清康熙青花大盘直径为420毫米,实属罕见,底款“大清康熙年制”。 盘心主题纹饰为人物故事图。画面人物比例得当,注重人物表情、性格的刻划。轮廓、衣纹线条流畅,树木、乃至人物衣饰有平涂。造型规整,胎质坚密,釉汁滋润,图案丰富,主次分明,青花色调淡雅。无论胎釉,还是发色画工都充分体现了康熙时期的较高水准,具有很高的艺术性和观赏性。

This piece of "Kangxi blue-and-white large plate with double soles" is rare, with a diameter of 420 mm. The bottom piece is "Kangxi blue-and-white large plate of Qing Dynasty". The decorative pattern of the plate core theme is the figure story. The proportion of the characters in the picture is appropriate, and the description of the characters' expressions and personalities is emphasized. The outline and lines of the clothes are smooth, and the trees and even the clothes of the figures are painted flat. The shape is regular, the placenta is firm and dense, the glaze is moist, the pattern is rich, the primary and secondary are clear, and the blue and white color tone is elegant. No matter the embryo glaze or the hair color painting, it fully reflects the high standard of Kangxi period and has high artistry and appreciation.

 

 

 

 

 

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